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A. Introduction


Processes and landforms impacted by:

Learning outcomes: you should be able to:

B. Glacier Classification


  • continental glaciers or ice sheets Link: Laurentide ice sheet map

  • alpine glaciers


  • warm-based

  • cold-based

  • poly-thermal

Image: Antarctica
Photo credit: NASA World Wind

Image: Glaciers of Mt. EverestPhoto Credit: NASA Earth from Space STS066-208-25


  • advancing

  • stationary

  • retreating

Diagram: glacial mass balance

C. Processes of Erosion


  • evidence: glacial flour, striations, polished rock

  • factors affecting the rate of abrasion

Crushing and fracturing Link: photo of crescentic gouges

  • evidence: chatter marks, crescentic gouges

Plucking (quarrying)

Meltwater Erosion Link: glacial outburst flood photos

Photo: striations
Photo: © K.A. Lemke.

Photo: glacial plucking
Photo: W.C. Alden, USGS Photographic Library, Image awc01839.

D. Erosional Landforms

Alpine landscapes

  • horns, cirques & aretes

  • u-shaped valleys; hanging valleys, giant stair steps, fjords

  • tarns, paternoster lakes

  • roche moutonnees

  • grooves & striations

Photo: alpine glacial landscape
Photo: ©Bruce Molnia, Terra Photographics. Earth Science World Image Bank Image iam8qk

Photo: glacial trough
Photo: © K.A. Lemke.

Photo: hanging valley
Photo: © K.A. Lemke.

Continental landscapes

Photo: Finger Lakes
Image credit: NASA Visible Earth. New York's Finger Lakes. Courtesy of ISS Crew Earth Observations Experiment and the Image Science & Analysis Group, NASA’s Johnson Space Center.

Photo: roche moutonnee
Photo: ©2001-2004 R Chambers/ St Ivo School Geography Department

E. Ice Transportation & Deposition

Transport mode

Supraglacial debris, Tasman Glacier 2001
Photo: Tasman glacier Photo: © K.A. Lemke

Englacial debris, Tasman Glacier 2001
Photo: englacial debris Photo: © K.A. Lemke

Nonstratified drift: diamictons or till


  • ice marginal

    • end moraines: terminal, recessional

    • interlobate, lateral

Photo: lateral & end morainesPhoto: R. DiLabio, Canadian Landscapes, Terrain Sciences Division, Geological Survey of Canada

Map: Wisconsin glacial lobes
Photo: drumlin Diagram: drumlin


Picture (550x372, 37.8Kb)F. Water Transportation & Deposition

Stratified drift

Fluvioglacial landforms

Photo: esker Photo: kame


Glaciolacustrine landforms

Photo: Antigo silt loamG. Wind Transportation & Deposition

Glacioaeolian deposits

H. Summary

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©Karen A. Lemke:
Last revised November 19, 2013