General Directions: As a courtesy to my students I have placed general graduate exam questions online. I have done this so you can have time to review, research, and prepare quality answers.

 In order to facilitate your exams, you will be allowed to choose from the current array of exam questions. If you have specific questions about the exam process, you can call the graduate office at 346-4403. If there is no human there, leave a message on the audix system. Be sure to speak slowly and indicate your name and telephone number. Please DO NOT CALL ME, someone from the graduate office will be the exam proctor. 

Answer ONLY ONE of the following questions. As you answer your question, please make sure you provide concrete examples and scholarly support, either from readings related to our class, or from your own research in preparation for the exam. Authors, dates and the title of the publication may be mentioned in the body of your answer.

As an FYI, I don't allow notes during exams

Keep an eye on the clock. If you are running short of time, or if you think you will run short on time, you may outline parts of your response. Answers will be considered for their completeness and their relation to the question, the support you offer, and your ability to draw professional conclusions by synthesizing personal, professional experience with academic and scholarly support.

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Using the following information as contexts for answering any of the questions below: 

In the words of Donald Schn. (1987):

reflective practice is a professional activity in which the practitioner reflects, both in-action and on-action in order to improve his or her practice.

When applied to teaching, this means that the teacher both experiments with his/her own actions while they are being carried out and then reflectively evaluates these actions by verbalizing, thinking, or writing about them, as well as by appropriating relevant knowledge from other sources in order to improve practice over time.

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Question 1

From your course syllabus:

Costa (2001) [in Barr, Sommers, and Ghere, and Monti] contends that one of the many promises of reflective practice is that it maximize(s) the autonomous, continual lifelong construction of meaning from ones professional experiences.

Arthur Costa (2001) further contends that regular reflective practice:

  •  enhances the meaning of work

  •  helps one to construct meaning from experiences and enhances the applicability of knowledge beyond its original limitations

  •  increases the occurrence of insights and complex learning

  •  is amplified with partners or in group settings (Many of you have experienced this through the teaching circles or in collaborative partnerships with peers, classmates, or colleagues.)

  •  is encouraged and grows if it is part of the organizations values, polices and practices

Why and How? - Using the array from Costa, pick any three of the components above indicating why you think these are important to continued excellence in professional practice and offer suggestions or insights into how you might go about incorporating these into your practices.

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Question 2: Answer part a or b, but NOT BOTH.

Reflective teaching is an inquiry approach that emphasizes an ethic of caring, a constructivist approach to teaching, and creative problem solving (Henderson, 1996).

a. Making sure you fully understand the principles listed by Henderson, how does reflective practice emphasize these elements? Please offer related examples and illustrations from the literature on reflective practice combined with your own experiences.


b. Specifically using all three of your course texts, pick at least 2 examples illustrating each of three concepts from Hendersons principles of reflective practice  - caring, constructivism, and creative problem solving. This means you will have at least 6 illustrations in you answer from your texts. Make sure the examples are pertinent, and elaborate on the relationship where you think it might be unclear.  

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* Please remember to make sure you have offered support and that you have answered the question in all it's parts. This exam emphasizes higher order thinking skills, critical thinking and connections between your studies and your professional life.

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copyright Leslie Owen Wilson, 1997, 2001, 2003. 2005