Personality & learning Styles & modalities

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Personal Comment:

Knowing something about  personality and learning styles is both fun and empowering. We all want to know about ourselves and what makes us tick. But we have to remember to use the information correctly as humans come in all shapes, sizes, and varieties.

 

The resulting style can be because one is genetically predisposed toward a certain preference, or style preference can be an extension of how one is raised. A style is a result of both nature and nurture combined.

 

A personality style is an expression of possible  potential. A style is not a disability, nor is one personality style better than another. It should not be used as an excuse for not trying something, and it should not deter one from attempting to do something either. Styles should not be used to categorically or casually sift and sort people into camps or make gross assumptions about types.

 

 

Leslie Owen Wilson 1997, 2005, restrictions on usage

No matter where you go, there you are!

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The Web is such a fantastic treasure trove of information. Hopefully, the sites selected here represent good examples of information and connections available. 

Have fun browsing and many blessings!  Leslie


General Comments and Overview Links on "learning styles:" The term "learning styles" is often used as a catch all phrase. It can be used in a number of ways to explain different things and that can be very confusing. It is a term used to describe preferences for: 1) certain types instructional or learning environments; 2) social interactions; 3) types of information processing or thinking; or 4) as academic extensions of personality styles; or 5) preferences for types of stimuli or sensory modality preference, and so on. It is a complex topic open to many different interpretations.

Here are some general introductory sites that may help users decide discern which definition is right for them. For my own part, I prefer to differentiate "learning styles" in the most common way, as an extension of general personality type, rather than as preferences in used intelligence or sensory input.

Ageless Learner - Great place to start -- nice test links to a number of profiles  

All School Guide - Nice overview with tests and sample links

Don Clark's Overview of some of the contrasted differences

Enhancing learning - Enhancing learning with technology -- a nice overview of the array of types 

Upside down schoolroom - Again a nice array of links and a good place to start a general overview. 


In more detail

Personality Theory and Theorists - Jungian Archetypes - Comprehensive site with many links to Jungian ideas and resources.

Carl Jung - Individuation Process - An overview of Jung's concepts on the process of individuation.  

Literary Archetypes Listing - An extension of Jung's original work into archetypes from a literary perspective by author Tami Cowden


Personality Pathways - Excellent site for beginners investigating this complex topic

Pictures of Personality Types - Rather interesting twist to the conundrum of personalities using the classic collapsed MBTI temperament types by John Lopker

Here is a page with several fun personality tests.


  • MBTI/Keirsey-Bates  Note to users 2/2/07 - the Keirsey links have been down - I will continue to check.

Jungian/MBTI Overview  

UpsideDownClassroom Links to MBTI - A good place to start investigating  

Wikipedia on Keirsey - Nice overview of Keirsey's theory   

Keirsey Temperament Sorter On-line

Paragon Educational Consulting Student Learning Style Inventory - Online test similar to the MBTI or Keirsey tests. However, this one reports that it is suitable to use with children 9 years and above. The test is copyrighted and while the website offers some information, it is meant to be administered by facilitators trained in its usage as style information can be misused and even damaging when used by the uninformed. 

Personality: Character and Temperament - Official Web Site for the Keirsey Temperament Sorter and Temperament Theory

Personality tests on the web - Wonderful array of on-line, scored personality tests.

Personal Learning Style - A series of pages that discuss learning styles.

Psychological Types - Lots of links and great charts

Another personality test - Just for fun.

Validity and reliability of the MBTI

More on validity and reliability of the MBTI - Offers critique on existing stats


AFT Pages - The following are two articles from the American Federation of Teachers (AFT)pages and provide some useful discussions on explaining learning modalities and some of the research controversies surrounding the concept of learning retention and modality usage, both are by Daniel Willingham. They have changed the links so you will have to do a search within the site based on title, author or subject.

Butler - An article by Kathleen Butler, Successful Learning Strategies for the Emerging Adolescent, on her SDI method(style differentiate instruction), in the ERIC database. Note: If you have access to a library with a subscription to ERIC, you can usually get a full text reprint of this article.

Enneagram - The Enneagram Institute - A commercial site

Equity and Excellence in Higher Education - An excellent overview article by Terry O'Connor on learning styles and their different permutations  

General directory of learning styles - Again, a good place to start and overview

Gregorc's and Butler's Learning Styles - A brief description explaining their theories by Dennis Mills. 

Gregorcs homepage 

Overview of Gregroc and his styles -- short and sweet

On-line version of Gregorc sorter 

Learning Styles - University of Duluth pages on Learning Styles. Good place to start learning a lot about this topic.

Learning styles and technology - Short overviews with hyperlinks from Calgary Catholic Schools.

Susan Cooper's Compilation and Summaries of different learning styles materials  - very complete overview.

Theories of Learning  - General Index - General Index on comprehensive site set up by Greg Kearsley.

Theories of Learning  - Comprehensive series of links with lots of theorists, again set up by George Kearsley!

True Colors - Professors Bill and Lynn Kirby's site about the popular personality style sorter.  The Kirby's descriptors of true colors.  Using true colors.

A series of links on learning styles  

Teaching and learning - Alistair McNaught -  Discussion of how to bring in learning styles from a science of pedagogy perspective

The Upside Down Classroom -- If you had to go to just one site on learning styles, this would be it.  Great array of links.

VARK - Learning modality inventory.


  • Controversies - This website is now a British commercial site devoted to learning styles. The original post was an exceptional analyses of the diverse views on learning styles and related literature. From the info provided you may see if you can find it through the site or by other means. Good luck!

Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning - From the Brits -- This is a grand study and a meta-analysis of literature on learning styles that is both careful and systematic as it critical reviews a variety of instruments. A very comprehensive look at an array of diverse learning style instrumentation (71) segregating and examining the 13 most popular models. This study concluded that it is the validity and reliability of the parent instrument that is important in determining the ultimate usefulness and effectiveness of the work related to teaching and learning. The study concentrates on 4 major questions:

1. What models of learning styles are influential and potentially influential?
2. What empirical evidence is there to support the claims made for these models?
3. What are the broad implications for pedagogy of these models?
4. What empirical evidence is there that models of learning styles have an impact on students learning?

Specifically examined: 

  1. Allinson and Hayes Cognitive Styles Index (CSI)

  2. Apter's Motivational Style Profile (MSP)

  3. Dunn and Dunn model and instruments
    of learning styles

  4. Entwistle's Approaches and Study Skills Inventory
    for Students (ASSIST)

  5. Gregorc's Mind Styles Model and Style Delineator (GSD)

  6. Herrmann's Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI)

  7. Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ)

  8. Jackson's Learning Styles Profiler (LSP)

  9. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI)

  10. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

  11. Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA)

  12. Sternberg's Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI)

  13. Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS)


  Is it Nurture or nature? You decide 

From Time - Personality Genes

The Mystery of Twins


 Tests, tests and more tests -- some fun, some serious and there are LOTS!

All the tests.com - Again, all different types of IQ tests -- if you can get beyond the awful flashing advertisements, it is informative and fun.

Chatterbean - A fun site despite the commercial attachments.

FunEducation - On-line IQ test links

Gimpy - A series of personality test 

I-Village - A series on-line promotional tests -- kinda of fun.

Kingdomality - A fun site that has a personality test based on archetypes but placed in Medieval times. 

Queendom.com -- all kinds of tests -- EQ, MI, IQ and much more

Paragon Learning Styles Test - Great site  -- If you take the test please abide by the restrictions.

Selfgrowth - a directory of IQ tests on the web. 

Tests, tests, tests - Again a comprehensive array of on-line, scored tests in many different areas -- to include personality and intelligence tests.

Ulla Zang - A fun personality test that is surprisingly accurate.


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