� Leslie Owen Wilson,
1997, updated 3/05
Newer Views of Learning-
Highlights on EQ
**Note: This page will be coming down soon and has
been updated and moved to
Highlights of Emotional intelligence: Excerpts and comments from Daniel Goleman
In 1995 Daniel Goleman's best seller
Emotional intelligence was published.
His book has caused many to rethink common, existing definitions of
intelligence, and to focus on the more functional aspects of interpersonal and
personal strengths commonly used by successful, happy people. The following are
highlights from Goleman's work as he describes and defines common EQ attributes,
offers differentiated views of EQ in males and females, and discusses attributes
that differentiate EQ from other personal definitions of intelligence.
Goleman defines EQ as:
IQ is not destiny -
emotional intelligence is a different way of being smart. It includes knowing
your feelings and using them to make good decisions; managing your feelings
well; motivating yourself with zeal and persistence; maintaining hope in the
face of frustration; exhibiting empathy and compassion; interacting smoothly;
and managing your relationships effectively. Those emotional skills matter
immensely - in marriage and families, in career and the workplace, for health
Persons having EQ exhibit the following common
attributes. In essence, the panorama of skills found in the context of emotional
intelligence help individuals manage both the self and others in the following
Gender Differences: Goleman offers counter views of emotionally
intelligent men and women.
By contrast, men who are
high in emotional intelligence are socially poised, outgoing and cheerful, not
prone to fearless or worried rumination. They have a noticeable capacity for
commitment to people or causes, for taking responsibility, and for having an
ethical outlook; they are sympathetic and caring in their relationships. Their
emotional life is rich, but appropriate; they are comfortable with themselves,
others, and the social universe they live in. . . .
women . . . tend to be assertive and express their feelings directly, and to
feel positive about themselves; life holds meaning for them. Like the men, they
are outgoing and gregarious, and express their feelings appropriately (rather
than, say, in outbursts they later regret); they adapt well to stress. Their
social poise lets them easily reach out to new people; they are comfortable
enough with themselves to be playful, spontaneous, and open to sensual
experience. Unlike the women purely high in IQ, they rarely feel anxious or
guilty, or sink into rumination. 45
Intrapersonal, Interpersonal and Emotional Intelligences -- What are
In the contexts of Goleman's previous
definitions, it may be time to take a look at standard characteristics used to
describe students possessing Gardner's
Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligences.
Emotional intelligence appears to be a more comprehensive version of
Gardner's personal intelligences. Many of the attributes are the same.
The following have been synthesized from
Gardner's works on MI and others translations of his work.
Enjoys socializing with peers and social
Seems to have natural leadership abilities.
Readily able to give advice to friends who
Seems to be "people smart."
Enjoys a sense of belonging to groups -- May
belong to clubs, committees, or other organizations.
Enjoys informally teaching other kids.
Likes to play games with others.
Has two or more close friends.
Has a well-developed sense of empathy or
concern for others.
Others often seek out this student's company
-- others appear to be drawn to this student.
Displays a strong sense of independence, or is
often described as, "Having a strong character or will."
Has a realistic sense of personal strengths
and weaknesses -- knows what they can achieve and what their personal
Does well when left alone to play or study,
often prefers to work, play or study alone.
Can be described as "marching to the beat of a
different drummer"-- this may apply to style of dress, mannerisms, of living or
Has a special interest or hobby that he/she
doesn't talk much about.
Has a good sense of self-direction -- is often
Accurately expresses how he/she is feeling.
Is able to be introspective and reflective
about personal actions and learns from his/her failures and successes in life.
Has high self-esteem and a strong sense of
*Note: These categories are not mutually
exclusive, individuals may have strengths in both areas
Goleman differentiates his approach from that
of Gardner's by noting:
While there is ample room
in Gardner's descriptions of the personal intelligences for insight into the
play of emotions and the mastery and in managing them, Gardner and those who
work with him have not pursued in great detail the role of feeling in these
intelligences, focusing more on cognition than about feeling. This focus,
perhaps unintentionally, leaves unexplored the rich sea of emotions that makes
the inner life and relationships so complex, so compelling, and so often
puzzling. And leaves yet to be plumbed the sense in which there is intelligence
in the emotions and the sense in which intelligence can be brought to emotions.
Goleman goes on to discuss the history of the
predominating, rather parochial views of behavioral scientists and psychology's
eighty year old mindset concerning the science of cognition, to exclude much
serious study of the roles of emotions. He views this as "lopsided." Goleman
further explains he doesn't think IQ and emotional intelligence are opposing
competencies, but rather they represent different aspects and that different
people have varying degrees of types of intelligence.
In his attempt expand the differences between
Gardner's definitions of personal intelligences as emotional intelligence,
Goleman uses the work of Salovey as a foundation. I offer a summarized version
of Salovey's definitions of emotional intelligence -- these are categorized into
1. Knowing one's emotions
- Self-awareness is the keystone of emotional intelligence. This area features
the ability to monitor feelings from moment to moment as they happen. People
possessing this domain make personal decisions with certainty and assurance.
2. Managing emotions -
This domain refers to the ability to handle emotions in appropriate manners.
Persons proficient in this domain are better able to shake off negative emotions
like gloom, anxiety, and irritability. These people are ones who have less
difficulty bouncing back after experiencing life's ups and downs.
3. Motivating oneself -
Concentrating one's emotions on the achievement of goals within the context of
mastery, paying attention and creativity falls into this category. People
possessing attributes in this domain are self-motivated, they delay
gratification and stifle their impulsive urges. They can enter the state of
"flow" often needed to complete a task and that allows them to be highly
effective and productive.
4. Recognizing emotions in
others - Empathy is an essential "people skill." These people are attuned to
subtle social cues and interactions which indicate what others want or need.
5. Handling relationships
- Skills in this domain refer to the abilities common in people who are adept at
managing the emotions and their interactions with others. This domain also
refers to aspects inherent in popularity, leadership, and harmonious
interpersonal relationships. 43-44
Like Gardner's discussions of the multiple
intelligences, Goleman points out that different people have aspects of each
domain to varying degrees, combinations and intensities. People adept in one
domain of emotional intelligence might not necessarily excel in another domain.
Goleman's discussions give an added dimension to our concentrations on the
importance of personal intelligences. His thoughts and ideas help elaborate and
explain the importance and dimensions of the personal intelligences as they are
extended and redefined as components of emotional intelligence.
(Direct quotes from
Emotional intelligence by Goleman, D.
(1995). Text from Journeys:
Inside out, outside in.
� Wilson, L.O. (1997) Book manuscript. All rights reserved.)
Teaching children to love
Decarte's error: Emotion, reason and the brain
Goleman, D., "On emotional intelligence,"
Educational leadership, v.54, n.1,
September 1996, 6-10.